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第五篇〜貴族中的貴族〡法國製琴大師Aristide Cavaille-Coll—卡發耶科爾(part II )(下)


Orgelkids China執行長蔣士挺(Justin Berg)「兒童管風琴教育專欄」【初因初音】。 『Aristide Cavaille-Coll, part II』from the column【My First Sound】 by Justin Berg, the Executive Director of Orgelkids China. (In English below)

續上文: 「卡發耶科爾手鍵盤有32個主音管(從低音F開始),一路延伸到四個混合音栓,製造出非常宏大的音響效果。而整批的加倍簧管音響更是雄偉,雖然仍是古典風格:每個獨立風琴都有8呎燦爛簧管,主風琴、蓬巴德音管和腳鍵盤也都有第一和第二燦爛簧管和法國小喇叭」。

但這樣的規格有一些不同於古典設計的特色。首先,主風琴和增風琴的泛音音栓相對較少,尤其是在1又3/5加三度的8呎和聲系列這類的音栓。其次,有大量的8呎基礎音栓,是18世紀晚期的管風琴從未出現過的。最令人注目的創新跡象或許是在增風琴:擴展成全音域,並且放置在腳鍵盤的表情踏板(一種法式的增音強弱踏板箱)之下!小型的調量鍵盤已經在18世紀晚期出現於英格蘭,但通常不會包含全音域鍵盤,也沒有那麼多音栓。事實上,聖德尼教堂的增風琴尺寸,正預示出調量鍵盤在卡發耶科爾後來的管風琴中的重要性。並且,控制調量開閉器的踏板經過重新設計,有一條彈簧讓管風琴家能夠逐漸地、流暢地開啟或關閉這個調量箱,而不是只能完全打開或關閉。

在上述各種明顯的變動底下,則是一些技術上的創新方法,大大改變了卡發耶科爾的管風琴發出的聲音,而其中最遠近馳名的或許就是上述的Barker的專利裝置,讓管風琴大部分的音栓一起運用時按鍵相對輕盈一些。沒有工程方面的學識,要了解Barker專利裝置的概念並不容易,但我們可以試著用一個實際的比喻來說明。請想像你坐著彈奏一座巨大的管風琴,把大部分音栓都拉出來,想彈出宏亮的樂音,但是當你試圖壓下琴鍵時,它們卻幾乎動不了,因為連接鍵盤和音管的複雜傳動裝置產生極大的風壓和阻力。

這正是卡發耶科爾所遭遇的難題,而他的解決方法就是把Barker的發明—— 一種小型的盒子安插在按鍵和連接按鍵與音管的桿子(滑片)之間。管風琴演奏家壓下一個琴鍵時,這個小盒子(每個琴鍵有一個小盒子)會充飽空氣,氣壓會推動連接的桿子,最後便會開啟每個音管下方的小門(又稱托板)。這就是Barker專利設計的基本概念。在這個管風琴上按壓琴鍵,有點像是壓下棉花糖:你從一端往下壓,另一端就會鼓起,於是使別的零件移動而開啟托板,讓氣流進入音管中。這個比喻非常簡略因此可能會有些誤導,但可以大致呈現出Barker發明的概念。

Barker的這項巧妙的裝置,說明了聖德尼教堂管風琴最有意思的其中一個特點:主風琴和蓬巴德音管是用單一鍵盤,意思就是雖然有四層手鍵盤,卻只有三組鍵盤。氣動輔助(Barker設計的裝置)是唯一的方法,讓演奏家可以在單一鍵盤上彈奏如此龐大的音栓合奏。主風琴和蓬巴德音管結合時,整個合奏包含32呎主音管到四種混合音栓(基礎音栓和高音尖銳音管),還有一支16呎蓬巴德音管、四支8呎燦爛簧片音管、三支4呎法國小喇叭音管——確實是相當大的簧管陣容。這會需要大量的氣流,而且別的鍵盤的簧管也是同樣的情形,最後便形成卡發耶科爾精彩出眾的設計:除了各個標準手鍵盤和腳鍵盤的八度音,還有次八度音,讓手鍵盤加上16度音高。這種創新設計不僅帶來更沉重又更嚴肅的音色,也增加了鍵盤傳動的重量,因此很需要Barker發明的裝置。

雖然這座偉大的管風琴還有許多可以探索的特點,但我們要先在此打住,把它的設計靈感存留在我們的想像中。本文還有第三和第四部分,我們將探索卡發耶科爾後來發展出的風格,並以兩種截然不同的管風琴為例,一種是他所製作的小型合唱伴奏風琴,另一個則是他最後未能完成的計畫:為羅馬聖彼得大教堂所設計的巨型管風琴。

你的朋友蔣士挺

〜Cavaille-Coll (Part II)--3 However, there are other features of this specification that depart from Classical designs. Among these, note the relative lack of mutation stops in the Grand-Orgue and Récit, especially third-sounding ranks such as the Tierce. Furthermore, there is a wealth of 8’foundation stops that were not found even in later 18th century instruments. Perhaps the most compelling evidence of innovation, though, can be seen in the Récit: extended to full compass and placed under expression — a French Swell box! Small Swell divisions were already known in England by the later 18th century, but they generally did not enclose a full-compass division, nor did they enclose so many stops. In fact, the size of the Récit at St. Denis already hints at the importance this division would assume in later Cavaille-Coll instruments. Also, the pedal that controlled the Swell shutters was redesigned with a spring which gave the organist the ability to gradually and smoothly open and close the Swell, rather than simply having it completely open or closed.

Underlying these obvious changes to the Classical organ were technical innovations that substantially altered the sound of Cavaille-Coll’s instruments. Perhaps most celebrated of these inventions was the Barker Machine, mentioned above, which allowed most of an organ’s stops to be played together with a relatively light touch. Since it is not easy to understand the concept of a Barker Machine without an Engineering degree, we can try to think of a practical comparison. Imagine that you sit down to play a giant pipe organ. You pull out most of the stops, wanting to play loudly, but when you try to depress the keys, they barely move. This is because there is so much wind pressure and resistance from the complicated action that connects the keys to the pipes.

That was precisely the problem that Cavaille-Coll encountered. His solution was to insert Barker’s invention — a kind of small box — between the keys and the rods (trackers) that connected them to the pipes. When the organist depressed a key, this box (one per key) filled with air and the pressure from that air pushed the remaining connecting rods, finally opening the small door (or pallet) under each pipe. This is the basic idea of the Barker Machine. Pushing down the keys on such an organ is a little like pressing on a marshmallow: while you press down on one end, the other end bulges, and that outward bulge helps move the other parts that open the pallet and admit wind to the pipes. While this is a very basic, and therefore somewhat misleading comparison, it gives you a general idea of Barker’s invention.

The ingenuity of the Barker Machine helps explain one of the most interesting aspects of the St. Denis organ: the Grand-Orgue and Bombarde divisions both play from a single keyboard. This means, that even though there are four manual divisions, there are only three keyboards. Having a pneumatic assist (i.e. Barker Machine) was the only way to comfortably play such an enormous chorus of stops on a single keyboard. When combined, the Grand-Orgue and Bombarde in full chorus includes the principals from 32’ Montre through the four mixtures (Fourniture and Cymbale), as well as a 16’ Bombarde, four 8’ Trompette’, and three 4’ Clairon — a true battery of reeds! All of this demands a great deal of wind. And of course, these could be coupled to other divisions, with their own reedwork, which brings us to one final, striking feature of Cavaille-Coll’s design: in addition to the various standard manual and pedal couplers, there are also suboctave couplers, which allow manuals to be coupled at 16’ pitch. This innovation not only permits a more ponderous, serious tone, but also contributes to the weight of the key action and therefore the need for the Barker Machine.

Though there is more that we could explore in this grand instrument, it is time now to leave and let the inspiration of its design settle into our imaginations. Next time, in the third and final installment of this article on Cavaille-Coll, we will turn our attention to later developments in his style by considering two widely contrasting instruments: his small Choir organs, and one of his final, yet unrealized projects: the mammoth organ he designed for St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome.

Your Friend, Justin

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©2018 by Susan K. Chen Memorial Foundation for Music Education.